WATER & ELECTROLYTES

The proportion of electrolytes in formula O2 is comparable to that of IV  fluids -the gold standard for rehydration in medicine. Formula O2 also comes in 16 oz servings, which is roughly equivalent to a standard sized 500 cc fluid bolus used for IV  fluid resuscitation. 500 cc’s is enough to be effective without causing fluid overload.

CAFFEINE

Moderate amounts of caffeine can exert many beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and central nervous v system (CNS). These effects include pain relief, central vasoconstriction, and CNS excitability. Cerebral vasodilation, which can cause headaches, and CNS slowing, which can cause fatigue, dizziness, and decreased alertness, are common signs of toxins within the bloodstream. Caffeine acts as a potent central vasoconstrictor and can therefore provide immediate relief from headaches. It also promotes wakefulness and prevents CNS slowing by counteracting adenosine receptors in the brain. Additionally, several studies have suggested that moderate caffeine intake can lead to gains in athletic performance (increased strength and peripheral blood ow) and enhance post-workout recovery (enhanced glycogen synthesis/uptake and decreased post-exercise soreness) [10-13]. Moreover, recent scientific research has shown that caffeine, which has long been thought to cause dehydration, has no detrimental effect on fluid balance if consumed regularly and in moderation [14-18]. Finally, formula O2 contains only natural caffeine from green co ee beans, which is absorbed more gradually than artificially manufactured caffeine.